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|Index of refraction
|Solubility in water(g/L)
|Immediate Danger to Life and Health
||40ppm (inhaled, 100%)
- Generically, as an acid which can be produced fairly easily
- Feedstock for acetic anhydride
- Source acid for all acetate compounds
- Pharm: Ear/nose/throat topical application
- Main Article: Vinegar
Acetic acid does occur naturally as a secondary metabolite of acetobacter as it consumes ethanol.
- CH3CH2OH + O2CH3COOH + H2OΔH=-490kJ
- Bronchial & skin irritant
Molar fractions in liquid and vapor at various temperatures
||Mol% water in liquid
||Mol% water in vapor
- The eutectic point is -27°C / 71.6% (mol/mol) / 88.3% (kg/kg).
- Distill vinegar, preferably at reduced pressure. The water distills over, leaving a proportional increase in concentration. The water bath is important to prevent the possible degradation or oxidation of any acetic acid vapor.
- Combine vinegar with diethyl ether
- Mix well
- Allow to separate (>90% in the ether layer)
- decant off the hydrocarbon layer
- Distill off the hydrocarbons, leaving acetic acid.
via sulfuric acid
- Gather 7 ubm of calcium acetate
- Gather 4 ubm of sulfuric acid
- Combine the acetate and acid, producing a solution of acetic acid and calcium sulfate
- Ca(CH3COO)2 + H2SO42 CH3COOH(l) + CaSO4(diss.)
- Distill the solution, precipitating out the calcium sulfate
- CH3COOH(l) + CaSO4(dis)CH3COOH(v) + CaSO4(s)
via hydrochloric acid
- As with sulfuric acid, the same reaction can be done with hydrochloric acid producing the more useful calcium chloride as a byproduct.
- Ca(CH3COO)2 + 2 HCl → CaCl2 + 2 CH3COOH
via sodium bisulfate
- Gather equimolar amounts of anhydrous sodium acetate and sodium bisulfate
- Grind and thoroughly mix
- NaCH3COO(s) + NaHSO4(s)Na2SO4(s) + CH3COOH(v)
- The residue is sodium sulfate
- The distillate is acetic acid
- Wash with pentane or hexane - immiscible
Calculation of percent acetic acid
(density of solution)-1