Difference between revisions of "Copper (II) chloride"

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===Other===  
 
===Other===  
 
* Catalyst for the production of [[sulfuric acid]]
 
* Catalyst for the production of [[sulfuric acid]]
* Metal Etchant
+
* Metal etchant
==Natural occurrence==  
+
 
 +
==Natural occurrence==
 +
* Does '''NOT''' occur naturally
 +
 
 
==Hazards==
 
==Hazards==
 
Soluble copper compounds are toxic to mammals and can be deadly to fish.
 
Soluble copper compounds are toxic to mammals and can be deadly to fish.
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<div style='margin-left: 2em;'>
 
<div style='margin-left: 2em;'>
 
=====copper carbonate / malachite / azurite=====
 
=====copper carbonate / malachite / azurite=====
These reactions are expected to work
+
These reactions work in the presence of excess [[ammonium chloride]]
: {{#Chem:4 NH4Cl + Cu2CO3(OH)2 = 2 CuCl2 + 3 H2O + 4 NH3 + CO2 // '''UNTESTED'''}}
+
: {{#Chem:4 NH4Cl + Cu2CO3(OH)2 = 2 CuCl2 + 3 H2O + 4 NH3 + CO2 // 2x excess of -chloride }}
 
: {{#Chem:6 NH4Cl + Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 = 3 CuCl2 + 4 H2O + 6 NH3 + 2 CO2 // '''UNTESTED'''}}
 
: {{#Chem:6 NH4Cl + Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 = 3 CuCl2 + 4 H2O + 6 NH3 + 2 CO2 // '''UNTESTED'''}}
  
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At or above red heat (~500&deg;C), [[copper]] reacts directly with gaseous [[chlorine]], giving molten {{#Chem:CuCl2}}. The reaction is sufficiently exothermic that the reaction will continue once started.
 
At or above red heat (~500&deg;C), [[copper]] reacts directly with gaseous [[chlorine]], giving molten {{#Chem:CuCl2}}. The reaction is sufficiently exothermic that the reaction will continue once started.
 
</div>
 
</div>
====calcium chloride====
+
====via calcium chloride====
Metathesis reaction between [[copper (II) sulfate]] with [[calcium chloride]], producing copper chloride in solution and calcium sulfate as a precipitate.
+
Metathesis reaction between [[copper (II) sulfate]] with [[calcium chloride]] or '''barium chloride''', producing copper chloride in solution and calcium sulfate as a precipitate. Obviously this is only useful after the production of both materials, so there's a bootstrapping problem.
 
:{{#Chem: CuSO4 + CaCl2 = CuCl2 + CaSO4}}
 
:{{#Chem: CuSO4 + CaCl2 = CuCl2 + CaSO4}}
 +
:{{#Chem: CuSO4 + BaCl2 = CuCl2 + BaSO4}}
  
 
==Purification==
 
==Purification==
 
Recrystallize from hot dilute aqueous HCl by cooling in a [[calcium chloride]]-ice bath
 
Recrystallize from hot dilute aqueous HCl by cooling in a [[calcium chloride]]-ice bath
 
==Testing==
 
==Testing==
* Visual: Dark blue-green crystals
+
* Visual: Yellow-brown (anhydrous) dark green (excess chloride) or bright blue (partially hydrated) crystals
 
* Reacts vigorously with [[aluminum]]
 
* Reacts vigorously with [[aluminum]]
 
*: {{#Chem: 3CuCl2 + 2Al = 3Cu + 2AlCl3}}
 
*: {{#Chem: 3CuCl2 + 2Al = 3Cu + 2AlCl3}}

Revision as of 22:06, 25 March 2020

 
Copper (II) chloride
aka cupric chloride
Chemical formula CuCl2
OTP appearance yellow-brown solid 
Molar Mass(g/mol) 134.45 
Melting Point(°C) 498 
Boiling Point(°C) 993 (decomp) 
Density(g/cc) 3.386 
Solubility in water(g/L) 757 
Solubility in ethanol(g/L) 530 
Solubility in methanol(g/L) 680 
Solubility in ether(g/L) 1.1 
Solubility in acetone(g/L) 30
NFPA 704
NFPA704.png
0
2
1
 

 

Thermal Decomposition
copper (II) chloride
993°C
CuCl,Cl2

Uses

Other

Natural occurrence

  • Does NOT occur naturally

Hazards

Soluble copper compounds are toxic to mammals and can be deadly to fish.

Production

Synthesis

The main routes are divided by the source and valence of the copper, and the source of the chloride ion.

Production of copper chloride
  Source of chlorine ion
hydrochloric acid (aerated) ammonium chloride chlorine gas
Copper (0)
copper metal ?
Copper (I)
copper (I) chloride ? ?
Chalcocite
copper (I) sulfide
? ? ?
Cuprite
copper (I) oxide
? ? ?
Copper (II)
Tenorite
Copper (II) oxide
?
Covellite
copper (II) sulfide
?
Malachite ?
Azurite ?
Copper (II) acetate ? no

via hydrochloric acid

metallic copper
  • Bubble air through copper metal immersed in hydrochloric acid. This will not work without the air, and even then it takes days. This may go in two separate steps, first to copper (I) chloride, and thence to copper(II) chloride, shown separately below.
    4 Cu + 4 HCl + O2 4 CuCl + 2 H2O // from copper(0) to copper (I)
    4 CuCl + 4 HCl + O2 4 CuCl2 + 2 H2O // from copper(I) to copper (II)
copper (I) chloride
  • Bubble air through copper (I) chloride in hydrochloric acid. This will not work without the air, and even then it takes days. [1]
    4 CuCl + 4 HCl + O2 4 CuCl2 + 2 H2O // from (I) to (II)
copper (II) minerals

via ammonium chloride

copper carbonate / malachite / azurite

These reactions work in the presence of excess ammonium chloride

4 NH4Cl + Cu2CO3(OH)2 2 CuCl2 + 3 H2O + 4 NH3 + CO2 // 2x excess of -chloride
6 NH4Cl + Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2 3 CuCl2 + 4 H2O + 6 NH3 + 2 CO2 // UNTESTED
copper (II) oxide / sulfide

Hydrochlorination of the copper(II) compounds begins at 190°C to form ammonium chlorocuprates, (NH4)2CuCl4 in with copper (II) oxide and NH4CuCl3 with copper (II) sulfide, which at the temperature higher than 300°C decompose affording CuCl2[2]

  1. Combine (dry) ammonium chloride and copper (II) oxide in a flask
  2. Direct gasses through a suckback trap, and thence to a water bubbler.
  3. Heat to 300°C
    2 NH4Cl + CuO CuCl2 + H2O + 2 NH3
    2 NH4Cl + CuS CuCl2 + H2S + 2 NH3
  4. Cool to RT with dryer in place.

via chlorine

metallic copper

At or above red heat (~500°C), copper reacts directly with gaseous chlorine, giving molten CuCl2. The reaction is sufficiently exothermic that the reaction will continue once started.

via calcium chloride

Metathesis reaction between copper (II) sulfate with calcium chloride or barium chloride, producing copper chloride in solution and calcium sulfate as a precipitate. Obviously this is only useful after the production of both materials, so there's a bootstrapping problem.

CuSO4 + CaCl2 CuCl2 + CaSO4
CuSO4 + BaCl2 CuCl2 + BaSO4

Purification

Recrystallize from hot dilute aqueous HCl by cooling in a calcium chloride-ice bath

Testing

  • Visual: Yellow-brown (anhydrous) dark green (excess chloride) or bright blue (partially hydrated) crystals
  • Reacts vigorously with aluminum
    3 CuCl2 + 2 Al 3 Cu + 2 AlCl3

Storage

  • Do not store with excess copper. This can result in decomposition to copper (I) chloride:
    Cu + CuCl2 2 CuCl
  • Do not store in acidic conditions.

Disposal

See Also

References

  1. US patent 2586579 "Method of production of cuprous oxide and copper chlorides"
    Link courtesy Google
  2. Borisov, V.A.; D’yachenko, A.N; Kraidenko, R.I. (2011) "Reaction of Ammonium Chloride with the Copper(II) Sulfide and Oxide, and Identification of the Reaction Products"
    Russian Journal of General Chemistry 81(7); pp1430–1433. 
    DOI:10.1134/S107036321107005X
    link courtesy researchgate.