Fresh water

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Fresh water is a Naturally Occurring, Widely Available material. It is by definition a legitimate source material for this project. It is water obtained from the natural environment with a sufficiently low salt content (0.5g/L) that it is not considered salt water. This does not imply that it is safe to drink.

Uses

Primary

Natural occurrence

Fresh water can be obtained from many sources:

  • Groundwater (springs and wells) is generally fresh water.
  • Fresh Water occurs naturally as both rain and dew, as well as snow, sleet, and hail.
  • Generally flowing water is fresh, so rivers and streams are good sources of fresh water
  • Lakes usually contain fresh water
  • Structural water occurs in many minerals. (e.g. Epsomite)
  • Many plants contain an abundance of fresh water.

Hazards

  • Drowning
  • Overconsumption (>= 2L/hr for multiple hours when normally hydrated) can lead to hyponatremia
  • Contaminated water can contain many pathogens

Production

Collect in watertight containers from any of the sources above.

Purification

Removal of biological contaminants

  • Filtration
  • Ultraviolet irradiation
  • Chlorination

Removal of insoluble particulates

  • Settling
  • Filtration
  • Flocculation and another filtration

Removal of chemical contaminants

  • Addition of soluble iron III and aluminum III (chlorides, nitrates, and to a certain degree sulfates) can remove many common anions (hydroxides and carbonates)
  • Distillation is an expensive but highly effective method of water purification, but a distillation rate of 2 (0.05ml) drops per second gives 0.1ml/s. This would require 3H20m per liter.

See Also

References