Difference between revisions of "Hydrogen cyanide"

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==References==
 
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[[Category:Nitriles]]
 
[[Category:Nitriles]]

Latest revision as of 19:06, 13 January 2020


Legality: CWC Schedule 3

CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE DEVELOPMENT, PRODUCTION, STOCKPILING AND USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION
ANNEX ON CHEMICALS
A. GUIDELINES FOR SCHEDULES OF CHEMICALS
Guidelines for Schedule 3
The following criteria shall be taken into account in considering whether a toxic chemical or precursor, not listed in other Schedules, should be included in Schedule 3:
(a) It has been produced, stockpiled or used as a chemical weapon;
(b) It poses otherwise a risk to the object and purpose of this Convention because it possesses such lethal or incapacitating toxicity as well as other properties that might enable it to be used as a chemical weapon;
(c) It poses a risk to the object and purpose of this Convention by virtue of its importance in the production of one or more chemicals listed in Schedule 1 or Schedule 2, part B;
(d) It may be produced in large commercial quantities for purposes not prohibited under this Convention.

Production of this substance may be illegal in some jurisdictions under certain circumstances. Bottom line: Do not produce this chemical without checking to make sure that you may do so legally.

 
 
Hydrogen cyanide
CWC LIST I/II/III SUBSTANCE
Chemical formula HCN
OTP appearance pale blue liquid 
Molar Mass(g/mol) 27.0253 
Melting Point(°C) -14 to -12°C 
Boiling Point(°C) 25.6-26.6 
Density(g/cc) 0.687 
Index of refraction 1.2675 
Solubility in water(g/L) misc 
Solubility in ethanol(g/L) misc 
Immediate Danger to Life and Health 50ppm (inh)
NFPA 704
NFPA704.png
0
4
2
 

Uses

Justification Questioned

Other

Natural occurrence

  • Does occur naturally in trace quantities in some vegetables (cyanohydrin breakdown products)

Hazards

Production

Extraction

See benzaldehyde for production of hydrogen cyanide from enzymatic decomposition of amigdalin.

Synthesis

Prussian Blue

Thermally decompose prussian blue in an inert environment

Fe4(Fe(CN)6)3
{
400-700°C}
4 Fe + Fe3C + 7 C + 5 (CN)2 + 4 N2

Alkali cyanides

Combine sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide with hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid

NaCN + HCl NaCl + HCN
KCN + H2SO4 KHSO4 + HCN

Testing

Purification

Storage

Disposal

React with sodium hydroxide solution, producing sodium cyanide, or the similar potassium salts. Alternatively, it can be combusted above 538°C.

See Also

References