Sulfur

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Sulfur
Chemical formula S
Atomic Number 16 
OTP appearance yellow solid 
Molar Mass(g/mol) 32 
Melting Point(°C) 116 
Boiling Point(°C) 444 
Density(g/cc) 2
NFPA 704
NFPA704.png
1
1
0
 

Uses

Primary

Secondary

  • Pharmacopia: Topical antibiotic
  • Component of blackpowder

Natural Occurrence

  • Elemental sulfur does occur natively. in sulfur domes, hydrothermal springs, and volcanoes.
  • Iron pyrite and chalcopyrite are natural sources of sulfur as well.
  • Bitumen often contains up to 4% sulfur.
  • An egg yolk contains .000016g (16μg) of sulfur.

Hazards

  • Burning sulfur produces sulfur di- and tri- oxides, which are toxic and irritating

Production

Extraction

Native Sulfur

Sulfur does occur naturally in volcanic areas, particularly around fumaroles, such as exist at Kawah Ijen and and Gunung Welirang in Java, Indonesia.

Sulfide Minerals

it is also practical to extract elemental sulfur from some sulfide minerals such as iron pyrite, marcasite and cinnabar by applying heat in the absence of oxygen or carbon:

FeS2
{
540°C}
FeS + S // Marcasite and pyrite
HgS Hg + S // Cinnabar

Synthesis

Clause

Hydrogen sulfide can be easily converted to pure sulfur via the Clause Process:

2 H2S + 3 O2 2 SO2 + 2 H2O
4 H2S + 2 SO2
{H2O
}
3 S2 + 4 H2O // bubble both gasses through water, or mix them with a bit of steam

Purification

sulfur is soluble in warm toluene, benzene and all types of dimethyl benzene.

Testing

Storage

Disposal

Localities

  • Crater Sulfur Mine near Death Valley, CA, USA (37°12'44.72"N, 117°41'17.88"W)
  • Kawah Ijen sulfur mine in Indonesia (37°12'44.72"N 117°41'17.88"W)
  • Paliorema Sulfur Mine near Milos, Greece (36°41'39.34"N, 24°32'39.11"E)

See Also

References