|OTP appearance||silvery solid|
- Essential for voltaic cell technologies
- Component in many stainless steels
- Elemental manganese does not occur naturally.
- manganese dioxide occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusite
Production of manganese is difficult. The primary source (pyrolusite, primarily manganese dioxide) is contaminated with many other materials (iron, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, cobalt, and others) Purifying the ore is complex. Electrolytic separation of manganese is similarly complex, and is often followed with a de-hydrogenation roasting.
Last accessed 15-Aug-2013.