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|OTP appearance||clear gas|
|Index of refraction||1.0004456|
|Solubility in water(g/L)||720|
- Hydrochloric acid is an industrial chemical.
- Key chemical intermediate for chlorine chemistry
- Can be used to produce sulfuric acid (via copper (II) chloride)
Extracting hydrogen chloride from water (hydrochloric acid) is difficult due to an azeotrope at about 20% HCl. Adding 25% by weight calcium chloride (or similar amounts of magnesium chloride) to the hydrochloric acid will help keep the water from combining with the hydrogen chloride. At a certain point, relatively pure, "dry" hydrogen chloride will evaporate from the mixture.
via sulfuric acid
- Combine sodium chloride and sulfuric acid
- NaCl + H2SO4 → HCl + NaHSO4
via phosphoric acid
Since phosphoric acid is available "early", this is an excellent path.
- Combine sodium chloride and phosphoric acid
- 3 NaCl + H3PO4 → 3 HCl(g) + Na3PO4 // can partially react to NaH2PO4 or Na2HPO4