Carbon dioxide

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Carbon dioxide
Chemical formula CO2
OTP appearance colorless gas 
Molar Mass(g/mol) 44.01 
Melting Point(°C) -78.8 (sublimes) 
Density(g/cc) 0.002 
Solubility in water(g/L) 1.45 (72%v/v) 
Speed of sound
20°C, 1atm (m/s)
267 
Immediate Danger to Life and Health 4% (inh)
NFPA 704
NFPA704.png
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1
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Carbon dioxide is one of the three main constituents of air, along with oxygen and nitrogen.

Uses

Other

  • Inert gas
  • Dry ice

Natural occurrence

  • Carbon dioxide represents 350 ppm (by volume) of the atmosphere.

Hazards

  • asphyxiant

Production

Extraction

  • Heat still water, capture gas. (oxygen and nitrogen dissolve much less readily) Between 1.5 and 2.5g (approximately 1L) of carbon dioxide will dissolve in 1L of water between the temperatures of 20 and 10 degrees centigrade. This is approximately a 0.045 molar solution.

Synthesis

  • Calcine calcium carbonate
    CaCO3
    {
    850°C}
    CaO + CO2/100 g of chalk per mol of CO
  • Acidify carbonates
    CaCO3 + 2 CH3COOH Ca(CH3COO)2 + H2O + CO2 // 100g chalk and 2400cc 5% vinegar per mol of CO2
    NaHCO3 + CH3COOH Na(CH3COO) + H2O + CO2 // 84g of sodium bicarbonate and 1200cc 5% vinegar per mol of CO2
    2 Na2CO3 + CH3COOH Na(CH3COO) + NaHCO3 + H2O + CO2 // 212g of sodium carbonateand 1200cc 5% vinegar per mol of CO2
  • Ferment sugars
    C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 // 1kg glucose yields 11mols of CO2
  • Fully oxidize (burn) carbon
    C + O2 CO2

Testing

Purification

Storage

Disposal

See Also

References