|OTP appearance||colorless liquid|
|Enthalpy of Formation(kJ/mol)||-80|
|Solubility in water(g/L)||misc|
- Feedstock for ammonium chloride and most amines.
- Occurs naturally in the effluent of birds, fish, and rodents.
- Inhalation or consumption can be hazardous
- Directly from excrement
- Action of urease upon urea, usually in an aqueous environment at raised temperature.
- (NH2)2CO + 3 H2O → CO2 + 2 NH3OH
Ammonium hydroxide has a relatively high vapor pressure. Like all such compounds, it can be purified by air stripping to a suitable solvent. Solutions of ammonium hydroxide will "boil off" small amounts of pure ammonia into the environment. Open containers of pure distilled water will absorb the ammonia, producing ammonium hydroxide. Thus a container of ammonium hydroxide and a container of distilled water, both in a sealed environment, will approach an equilibrium of concentrations of ammonium hydroxide. Although this decreases the concentration, it also increases the purity by restricting impurities to those that can be dissolved in air. The balance can be further driven by increasing the alkalinity and/or temperature of the source material relative to the absorbing material.
- Airtight containers
- Small amounts of dilute ammonium hydroxide may be disposed of directly into soil.
- Disposal directly into waterways is hazardous to indigenous aquatic life.