- 1 Legality: Production of alcohol in the US
- 2 Uses
- 3 Legality
- 4 Hazards
- 5 Natural Occurrence
- 6 Character
- 7 Production
- 8 Purification
- 9 Testing
- 10 See Also
- 11 References
|Index of refraction||1.36|
|Coefficient of Thermal Expansion(×10-6 °C-1)||1120|
|Solubility in water(g/L)||miscible|
|Water azeotrope bp(°C)||78.2|
- Pharmacopia: Antiseptic properties
- Pharmacopia: General Anesthetic
Distilling potable alcohol may be illegal in your jurisdiction. In some places in the US, it is illegal unless you render it impotable by adding repugnant flavors or poisons such as methanol. It may also be illegal to move the ethanol (even if it is rendered impotable) off your property. Check with local law enforcement before doing anything that might get you in trouble.
- Toxic in large quantities
- Ethanol does occur naturally as a biproduct of yeast growth.
|% ethanol (v/v)||% water (v/v)||density (s.g.)||bp (°C)|
Calcium oxide undergoes hydration with the residual water in 95.6% ethanol to form calcium hydroxide, which is not dehydrated under normal distillation conditions; therefore, absolute ethanol will result in the distillation receiver. Elemental calcium and calcium carbide have also been used for this purpose. The disadvantage to the above approach is that the resultant calcium hydroxide adsorbs a portion of the ethanol, which is not released under the conditions of normal distillation. Ethanol canNOT be dried using such agents as calcium chloride and lithium chloride because azeotropic "alcoholates" are formed with these substances. Ethanol canNOT be dried using such agents as sulfuric acid and phosphorous pentoxide because of their obvious reactivity with ethanol. The ternary azeotrope of water, ethanol and benzene is a convenient method because the water and benzene are all distilled off by 69 deg C or so, leaving the absolute ethanol to distill off at around 78 deg C. That's enough of a temperature difference to make this type of fractionation pretty straighforward
from dilute ethanol
- Place dilute ethanol in alembic
- Place alembic in a double boiler
- Heat the boiler such that the water just barely steams
- Wait until the solution begins to cross to the receiver
- Check again to make sure the boiler is steaming but not boling
- Wait until either:
- the solution stops crossing to the receiver
- 95% of the solution has been transferred
- Your less dilute dilute ethanol is in the receiver.
- Re-estimate the percent complete
- until either
- the percent complete is between 75% and 99% (R=2)
- the "flare" from tossing a spoonful onto the flame looks "good enough"
- you are tired of doing this
- Get mass of dilute ethanol (M)
- Estimate concentration in percent-mass (D)
- Calculate mass of calcium oxide required to absorb the water = 3.2 * M * (1-D)
- Slowly add the calcium oxide to the ethanol
- Mix thoroughly
1 - (density of solution)
- Take a spoonful of material and put it on a cool non-flammable surface. Light it with a flame. If it burns away completely, it's nearly 100% ethanol. If it leaves a puddle of water, the amount of water left will give an indication of how much ethanol there is.
National Conference of State Legislatures
link last accessed 11 July 2015.